Terms of restoration glossary
You will find on this page a list of definitions of the terms used in forest restoration and a list of full-named abbreviations.
Terms of restoration:
- Afforestation: The establishment of forest through planting and/or deliberate seeding on land that, until then, was not classified as forest.
- Biodiversity: Variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
- Climate change: A change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer.
- Desertification: Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.
- Ecological restoration: The process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed.
- Forest: Land spanning more than 0.5 ha with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. In the Mediterranean, forest covers about 25 million of hectares.
- Forest degradation: The reduction of the capacity of a forest to provide goods and services.
- Forest landscape: A landscape that is, or once was, dominated by forests and woodlands and which continues to yield forest-related goods and services.
- Forest landscape restoration: An active process that brings people together to identify, negotiate and implement practices that restore an agreed optimal balance of the ecological, social and economic benefits of forests and trees within a broader pattern of land uses.
- Invasive species: Species that are non-native to a particular ecosystem and whose introduction and spread cause, or are likely to cause, sociocultural, economic or environmental harm or harm to human health.
- Land degradation: Reduction or loss, in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest and woodlands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as: soil erosion caused by wind and/or water; deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil; and long-term loss of natural vegetation.
- Other wooded land: Land not classified as forest, spanning more than 0.5 ha, with trees higher than 5 m and a canopy cover of 5 to 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or land with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10 percent. Does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. In the Mediterranean, wooded land covers about 50 millions of hectares.
- Participation: The process of equitable and active involvement of all stakeholders in the formulation of development policies and strategies and in the analysis, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development activities. To allow for a more equitable development process, disadvantaged stakeholders need to be empowered to increase their level of knowledge, influence and control over their own livelihoods, including development initiatives affecting them.
- Payments for environmental services: Voluntary transactions whereby a welldefined environmental service is “bought” by a minimum of one buyer from a minimum of one provider if and only if the service is provided continually.
- Reforestation: The re-establishment of forest through planting and/or deliberate seeding on land classified as forest.
- Resilience: The capacity of a social and/or ecological system to absorb disturbance and to reorganize while undergoing change so as to retain essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks.
- Vulnerability: The degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. A function of the character, magnitude and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity and its adaptive capacity.
Sources: FAO, Convention on Biological Diversity, IPCC, UNCCD, Society for Ecological Restoration, CIFOR, Walker et al., 2004, Rietbergen-McCracken, Maginnis and Sarre, 2007
- CBD: Convention on Biological Diversity
- FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
- GCF: Green Climate Fund
- IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
- LDN: Land Degradation Neutrality
- PPP: Public-Private Partnership for Sustainable Forest Management
- ROAM: Restoration Opportunities Assessment Methodology (IUCN)
- UNCCD: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
- UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme
- UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Concevntion on Climate Change
- UN-REDD: United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries